No AccessLanguage, Speech, and Hearing Services in SchoolsClinical Forum1 Jul 2009

Morphology and Literacy: Getting Our Heads in the Game


    This prologue introduces the clinical forum, briefly discusses the importance of morphology in literacy, and informs the reader of the scope of the included articles.


    The concept of morphology is reviewed, contributing authors are introduced, and a brief summary of each of the 5 forum articles is provided.


    The studies in this forum investigated different morphological skills in a variety of contexts, at a variety of grade levels, and from a variety of perspectives, enabling the reader to learn more about morphological awareness developmentally, linguistically, and clinically.


    • Anglin, J. (1993). Vocabulary development: A morphological analysis. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 5810, Serial No. 238.
    • Apel, K., & Thomas-Tate, S. (2009). Morphological awareness skills of fourth-grade African American students. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40, 312–324.
    • Baumann, J. F., Edwards, E. C., Font, G., Tereshinski, C. A., Kame’enui, E. J., & Olejnik, S. (2002). Teaching morphemic and contextual analysis to 5th grade students. Reading Research Quarterly, 37, 150–173.
    • Carlisle, J. (1987). The use of morphological knowledge in spelling derived forms by learning disabled and normal students. Annals of Dyslexia, 37, 90–108.
    • Carlisle, J. (1988). Knowledge of derivational morphology and spelling ability in fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Applied Psycholinguistics, 9, 247–266.
    • Carlisle, J. (1995). Morphological awareness and early reading achievement. In Feldman, L. B. (Ed.), Morphological aspects of language processing (pp. 189–209). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    • Carlisle, J. (2000). Awareness of the structure and meaning of morphologically complex words: Impact on reading. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12, 169–190.
    • Carlisle, J., & Stone, A. (2005). Exploring the role of morphemes in word reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 40, 428–449.
    • Carlisle, J., Stone, A., & Katz, L. (2001). The effects of phonological transparency on reading derived words. Annals of Dyslexia, 51, 249–274.
    • Champion, A. (1997). Knowledge of suffixed words: A comparison of reading disabled and nondisabled readers. Annals of Dyslexia, 47, 29–55.
    • Elbro, C., & Arnbak, E. (1996). The role of morpheme recognition and morphological awareness in dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 46, 209–240.
    • Fowler, A., & Liberman, I. (1995). Morphological awareness as related to early reading and spelling ability. In Feldman, L. (Ed.), Morphological aspects of language processing (pp. 157–188). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    • Green, L., McCutchen, D., Schwiebert, C., Quinlan, T., Eva-Wood, A., & Juelis, J. (2003). Morphological development in children’s writing. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 752–761.
    • Jarmulowicz, L., & Hay, S. E. (2009). Derivational morphophonology: Exploring errors in third graders' productions. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40, 299–311.
    • Katz, L. A., & Carlisle, J. F. (2009). Teaching students with reading difficulties to be close readers: A feasibility study. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40, 325–340.
    • Kirk, C., & Gillon, G. T. (2009). Integrated morphological awareness intervention as a tool for improving literacy. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40, 341–351.
    • Mahoney, M., Singson, M., & Mann, V. (2000). Reading ability and sensitivity to morphological relations. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12, 191–218.
    • Nagy, W., & Anderson, R. C. (1984). How many words are there in printed school English?, Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 304–330.
    • Nagy, W., Berninger, V., & Abbott, R. (2006). Contributions of morphology beyond phonology to literacy outcomes of upper elementary and middle school students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1)17–34.
    • Ortega, K., Borden, B., & Rosenbush, B. (Producers). (2006). Get’cha head in the game. On High school musical [CD]. Burbank, CA: Universal Music Group.
    • Schain, D. (Producer). (2006). High school musical [Motion picture]. Burbank, CA: Buena Vista Home Entertainment.
    • Singson, M., Mahoney, D., & Mann, V. (2000). The relation between reading ability and morphological skills: Evidence from derivational suffixes. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12, 219–252.
    • Tyler, A., & Nagy, W. (1990). Use of derivational morphology during reading. Cognition, 36(1)17–34.
    • Windsor, J. (2000). The role of phonological opacity in reading achievement. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43, 50–61.
    • Wolter, J. A., Wood, A., & D’zatko, K. W. (2009). The influence of morpohological awareness on the literacy development of first-grade children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40, 286–298.

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