Purpose

The purpose of this meta-analysis was to systematically evaluate the effects of parent-implemented language interventions on the language skills of children between 18 and 60 months of age with primary and secondary language impairments.

Method

A systematic literature search yielded 18 studies that met the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Effect sizes for each study were calculated for 7 language outcome variables and analyzed using a random effects model. Separate analyses were conducted for each language outcome and for each comparison group. Outcomes were compared for children with and without intellectual disabilities and for parent report and direct observational language measures.

Results

The results indicate that parent-implemented language interventions have a significant, positive impact on receptive and expressive language skills of children with and without intellectual disabilities. Effect sizes (g) for child measures ranged from −0.15 to 0.82 depending on the outcome measure and comparison group.

Conclusion

The results of this review indicate that parent-implemented language interventions are an effective approach to early language intervention for young children with language impairments. Critical features of parent-implemented interventions are discussed in terms of implications for practice and future research.

References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis.

References

  • *Aldred, C., Green, J., & Adams, C. (2004). A new social communication intervention for children with autism: A pilot randomised controlled treatment study suggests effectiveness.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1420–1430.
  • Alpert, C., & Kaiser, A. (1992). Training parents as milieu language teachers.Journal of Early Intervention, 16, 31–52.
  • Alston, E., & St. James-Roberts, I. (2005). Home environments of 10-month-old infants selected by the WILSTAAR screen for pre-language difficulties.International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 40, 123–136.
  • *Baxendale, J., & Hesketh, A. (2003). Comparison of the effectiveness of the Hanen Parent Programme and traditional clinic therapy.International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 38, 397–415.
  • *Buschmann, A., Jooss, B., Rupp, A., Feldhusen, F., Pietz, J., & Philippi, H. (2008). Parent based language intervention for 2-year-old children with specific expressive language delay: A randomized controlled trial.Archives of Disease in Childhood, 94, 110–116.
  • Cheseldine, S., & McConkey, R. (1979). Parental speech to young Down’s syndrome children: An intervention study.American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 83, 612–620.
  • Comprehensive Meta-Analysis(Version 2) [Computer software].Englewood, NJ: Biostat.
  • Conti-Ramsden, G., Hutcheson, G., & Grove, J. (1995). Contingency and breakdown: Children with SLI and their conversations with mothers and fathers.Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38, 1290–1302.
  • Cooper, L., & Hedges, L. (2009). Research synthesis as a scientific process.In H. Cooper, L. Hedges, & J. Valentine (Eds.), The handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis (2nd ed., pp. 3–16). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • L. Cooper, L. Hedges, & J. Valentine (Eds.), 2009). The handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Dawson, G., Rogers, S., Munson, J., Smith, M., Winter, J., Greenson, J., & Varley, J. (2010). Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: The Early Start Denver Model.Pediatrics, 125, e17–e23.
  • Delaney, E., & Kaiser, A. (2001). The effects of teaching parents blended communication and behavior support strategies.Behavioral Disorders, 26, 93–116.
  • *Drew, A., Baird, G., Baron-Cohen, S., Cox, A., Slonims, V., Wheelwright, S., & Charman, T. (2002). A pilot randomised control of a parent training intervention for pre-school children with autism: Preliminary findings and methodological challenges.European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 11, 266–272.
  • Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, D. M. (1997). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test—III. Circle Pines, MN: AGS.
  • Dunst, C. (2002). Family-centered practices: Birth through high school.Journal of Special Education, 26, 139–147.
  • Fenson, L., Dale, P. S., Reznick, J. S., Thal, D., Bates, E., Hartung, J. P., & Reilly, J. S. (1993). The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. San Diego, CA: Singular.
  • *Fey, M., Cleave, P., Long, S., & Hughes, D. (1993). Two approaches to the facilitation of grammar in children with language impairment.Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36, 141–157.
  • *Gibbard, D. (1994). Parental-based intervention with pre-school language delayed children.European Journal of Disorders of Communication, 29, 131–150.
  • *Gibbard, D., Coglan, L., & McDonald, J. (2004). Cost-effectiveness analysis of current practice and parent intervention for children under 3 years presenting with expressive language delay.International Journal of Communication Disorders, 39, 229–244.
  • Gillet, J., & LeBlanc, L. (2007). Parent-implemented natural language paradigm to increase language and play in children with autism.Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 1, 247–255.
  • *Girolametto, L. (1988). Improving the social-conversational skills of developmentally delayed children: An intervention study.Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 53, 156–167.
  • *Girolametto, L., Pearce, P., & Weitzman, E. (1996a). The effects of focused stimulation for promoting vocabulary in young children with delays: A pilot study.Journal of Children’s Communication Development, 17, 39–49.
  • *Girolametto, L., Pearce, P., & Weitzman, E. (1996b). Interactive focused stimulation for toddlers with expressive vocabulary delays.Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 39, 1274–1283.
  • *Girolametto, L., Weitzman, E., & Clements-Baartman, J. (1998). Vocabulary intervention for children with Down syndrome: Parent training using focused stimulation.Infant-Toddler Intervention: The Transdisciplinary Journal, 8, 109–125.
  • Girolametto, L., Weitzman, E., Wiigs, M., & Pearce, P. (1999). The relationship between maternal language measures and language development in toddlers with expressive vocabulary delays.American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 8, 364–374.
  • *Green, J., Charman, T., McConachie, H., Aldred, C., Slonims, V., Howlin, P., & Pickles, A. (2010). Parent-mediated communication-focused treatment in children with autism (PACT): A randomized controlled trial.The Lancet, 375, 2152–2160.
  • Grimm, H. (2000). Sprachentwicklungstest für zweijährige Kinder (SETK-2) [Developmental language test for 2-year-old children]. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.
  • Hammer, C., Tomblin, B., Zhang, X., & Weiss, A. (2001). Relationships between parenting behaviors and specific language impairment in children.International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 36, 185–205.
  • Hancock, T., Kaiser, A., & Delaney, E. (2002). Teaching parents of preschoolers at high risk: Strategies to support language and positive behavior.Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 22, 191–212.
  • Harris, M., Jones, D., Brookes, S., & Grant, J. (1986). Relations between the non-verbal context of maternal speech and rate of language development.British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 4, 261–268.
  • Hart, B., & Risley, T. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
  • Hedges, L. (1981). Distribution theory for Glass’s estimator of effect size and related estimators.Journal of Educational Statistics, 6, 107–128.
  • Hedges, L. (2009). Statistical considerations.In H. Cooper, L. Hedges, & J. Valentine (Eds.), The handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis (2nd ed., pp. 37–47). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Hedrick, D. L., Prather, E. M., & Tobin, A. R. (1984). Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development—Revised. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Hemmeter, M., & Kaiser, A. (1994). Enhanced milieu teaching: Effects of parent-implemented language intervention.Journal of Early Intervention, 18, 269–289.
  • Hoff, E., & Naigles, L. (2002). How children use input to acquire a lexicon.Child Development, 73, 418–433.
  • Huttenlocher, J., Haight, W., Bryk, A., Seltzer, M., & Lyons, T. (1991). Early vocabulary growth: Relation to language input and gender.Developmental Psychology, 27, 236–248.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004Pub. L. No. 108-446, § 118 Stat. 2647 (2004)
  • Kaiser, A. (1993). Parent-implemented language intervention: An environmental system perspective.In A. Kaiser, & D. Gray (Eds.), Enhancing children’s communication: Research foundations for intervention, 2(pp. 63–84). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
  • *Kaiser, A., & Hancock, T. (1998). The effects of parent-implemented language intervention on mentally retarded children’s communication development. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Special Education, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN
  • Kaiser, A., Hancock, T., & Hester, P. (1998). Parents as cointerventionists: Research on applications of naturalistic language teaching procedures.Infants and Young Children, 10(4)46–55.
  • Kashinath, S., Woods, J., & Goldstein, H. (2006). Enhancing generalized teaching strategy use in daily routines by parents of children with autism.Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49, 466–485.
  • Law, J., Garrett, Z., & Nye, C. (2004). The efficacy of treatment for children with developmental speech and language delay/disorder: A meta-analysis.Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47, 924–943.
  • *Law, J., Kot, A., & Barnett, G. (1999). A comparison of two methods of providing intervention to three year old children with expressive/receptive language impairment. London, England: City University London.
  • Lipsey, M., & Wilson, D. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Mahoney, G., & Powell, A. (1988). Modifying parent–child interaction: Enhancing the development of handicapped children.Journal of Special Education, 22, 82–96.
  • Manolson, A. (1992). It takes two to talk: A parent’s guide to helping children communicate (3rd ed.). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: The Hanen Centre.
  • McConachie, H., & Diggle, T. (2007). Parent implemented early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review.Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 13, 120–129.
  • *McDade, A., & McCartan, P. (1998). Partnership with parents: A pilot project.International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 33, 556–561.
  • Meadan, H., Ostrosky, M., Zaghlawan, H., & Yu, S. (2009). Promoting the social and communicative behavior of young children with autism spectrum disorders.Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 29, 90–104.
  • Morris, S. (2008). Estimating effect sizes from pretest-posttest-control group designs.Organizational Research Methods, 11, 364–386.
  • Mundy, P., Kasari, C., Sigman, M., & Ruskin, E. (1995). Nonverbal communication and early language acquisition in children with Down syndrome and in normally developing children.Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38, 157–167.
  • Price, G. (1984). Mnemonic support and curriculum selection in teaching by mothers: A conjoint effect.Child Development, 55, 659–668.
  • Reynell, J., & Gruber, C. (1990). Reynell Developmental Language Scales, U.S. Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
  • Rice, M., Sell, M., & Hadley, P. (1991). Social interactions of speech- and language-impaired children.Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, 1299–1307.
  • Rowe, M. (2008). Child-directed speech: Relation to socioeconomic status, knowledge of child development and child vocabulary skill.Journal of Child Language, 35, 185–205.
  • Schreibman, L., & Koegel, R. L. (2005). Training for parents of children with autism: Pivotal responses, generalization, and individualization of interventions.In E. Hibbs, & P. Jensen (Eds.), Psychosocial treatment for child and adolescent disorders: Empirically based strategies for clinical practice (2nd ed., pp. 605–631). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Smith, K., Landry, S., & Swank, P. (2000). Does the content of mothers' verbal stimulation explain differences in children’s development of verbal and nonverbal cognitive skills?.Journal of School Psychology, 38, 27–49.
  • Sparrow, S., Balla, D., & Cicchetti, D. (1984). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: Expanded manual. Circle Pines, MN: AGS.
  • Tamis-LeMonda, C., Bornstein, M., & Baumwell, L. (2001). Maternal responsiveness and children’s achievement of language milestones.Child Development, 72, 748–767.
  • *Tannock, R., Girolametto, L., & Siegel, L. (1992). Language intervention with children who have developmental delays: Effects of an interactive approach.American Journal on Mental Retardation, 97, 145–160.
  • Tomasello, M., & Todd, J. (1983). Joint attention and lexical acquisition style.First Language, 4, 197–212.
  • *Van Balkom, H., Verhoeven, L., Van Weerdenburg, M., & Stoep, J. (2010). Effects of parent-based video home training in children with developmental language delay.Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 26, 221–237.
  • Vigil, D., Hodges, J., & Klee, T. (2005). Quantity and quality of parental language input to late-talking toddlers during play.Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 21, 107–122.
  • Weistuch, L., & Lewis, M. (1985). The language interaction intervention project.Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 5, 97–106.
  • Weizman, Z., & Snow, C. (2001). Lexical input as related to children’s vocabulary acquisition: Effects of sophisticated exposure and support for meaning.Developmental Psychology, 37, 265–279.
  • Wetherby, A., Prizant, B., & Hutchinson, T. (1998). Communicative, social/affective, and symbolic profiles of young children with autism and pervasive developmental disorders.American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 7(2)79–91.
  • Wilson, S. (2009). Systematic coding.In H. Cooper, L. Hedges, & J. Valentine (Eds.), The handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis (2nd ed., pp. 159–176). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Wulbert, M., Inglis, S., Kriegsmann, E., & Mills, B. (1975). Language delay and associated mother-child interactions.Developmental Psychology, 11, 61–67.
  • Yoder, P., McCathren, R., Warren, S., & Watson, A. (2001). Important distinctions in measuring maternal responses to communication in prelinguistic children with disabilities.Communication Disorders Quarterly, 22, 135–147.
  • Zimmerman, I. L., Steiner, V. G., & Pond, R. E. (1992). Preschool Language Scale–3. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

Additional Resources