In this article, the author comments on aspects of Kamhi's (2014) article, which caused the author to think more deeply about definitions of language, theories of learning, and how these two core components of intervention prepare clinical scientists as they search the literature for new knowledge. Interprofessional collaborative practice as a model for team-based intervention in school settings is also discussed.


The article addresses aspects of Kamhi's article that aligned or did not align with the author's definition of language and theory of learning and explains why considering these alignments is important for clinical scientists. Two challenges to staying current with the research base are also described, and suggestions are offered for addressing these challenges. Finally, the article provides an overview of interprofessional collaborative practice.


Clinical scientists should continue to strive to use their knowledge of what language is and how it is learned, combined with the best available scientific information, to best serve their clients. Combining their thoughts and actions, they undoubtedly will continuously improve their clinical practices.


  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (1983). Definition of language.ASHA, 25, 44.
  • Apel, K. (1999). Checks and balances: Keeping science in our profession.Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in the Schools, 30, 98–107.
  • Apel, K. (2010). Kindergarten children's initial spoken and written word learning in a storybook context.Scientific Studies in Reading, 14, 440–463.
  • Apel, K. (2011a). Science is an attitude: A response to Kamhi.Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 42, 65–68.
  • Apel, K. (2011b). What is orthographic knowledge?.Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 42, 592–603.
  • Apel, K., Brimo, D., Diehm, E., & Apel, L. (2013). Morphological awareness intervention with kindergarten, first, and second grade students from low SES homes: A feasibility study.Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 44, 161–173. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2012/12-0042
  • Apel, K., Brimo, D., Wilson-Fowler, E. B., Vortius, C., & Radach, R. (2013). Children develop initial orthographic knowledge during storybook reading.Scientific Studies of Reading, 17, 286–302. doi:10.1080/10888438.2012.692742
  • Apel, K., & Diehm, E. (2014). Morphological awareness intervention with kindergarteners and first and second grade students from low SES homes: A small efficacy study.Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47, 65–75. doi:10.1177/0022219413509964
  • Berkeley, S., Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2010). Reading comprehension instruction for students with learning disabilities, 1995–2006: A meta-analysis.Remedial and Special Education, 31, 423–436. doi:10.1177/0741932509355988
  • Bernstein Ratner, N. (2006). Evidence-based practice: An examination of its ramifications for the practice of speech-language pathology.Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 37, 257–267.
  • Bruner, J. (1975). The ontogenesis of speech acts.Journal of Child Language, 2, 1–19.
  • Cain, K., & Garcia, J. R. (2013). Decoding and reading comprehension: A meta-analysis to identify which reader and assessment characteristics influence the strength of the relationship in English.Review of Educational Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.3102/0034654313499616
  • Cirrin, F., & Gillam, R. (2008). Language intervention practices for school-age children with spoken language disorders: A systematic review.Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 39, S110–S137.
  • Doll, J., Packard, K., Furze, J., Huggett, K., Jensen, G., Jorgensen, D., … Maio, A. (2013). Reflections from an interprofessional education experience: Evidence for the core competencies for interprofessional collaborative practice.Journal of Interprofessional Care, 27, 194–196. doi:10.3109/13561820.2012.729106
  • Dollaghan, C. A. (2004). Evidence-based practice in communication disorders: What do we know, and when do we know it?.Journal of Communication Disorders, 37, 391–400.
  • Gittell, J. H., Godfrey, M., & Thistlewaite, J. (2013). Interprofessional collaborative practice and relational coordination: Improving healthcare through relationships.Journal of Interprofessional Care, 27, 210–213. doi:10.3109/13561820.2012.730564
  • Goodwin, A. P., & Ahn, S. (2013). A meta-analysis of morphological interventions in English: Effects of literacy outcomes for school-age children.Scientific Studies of Reading, 17, 257–285. doi:10.1080/10888438.2012.689791
  • Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). A meta-analysis of writing instruction for adolescent students.Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 445–476. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.99.3.445
  • Horst, J. S., Parsons, K. L., & Bryan, N. M. (2011). Getting the story straight: Contextual repetition promotes word learning from storybooks.Frontiers in Psychology, 2(17)1–11. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00017
  • Interprofessional Education Collaborative Expert Panel. (2011). Core competencies for interprofessional collaborative practice: Report of an expert panel. Washington, DC: Interprofessional Education Collaborative.
  • Kamhi, A. G. (2014). Improving clinical practice for children with language and learning disorders.Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 45, 92–103.
  • Law, J., Garrett, Z., & Nye, C. (2004). The efficacy of treatment for children with developmental speech and language delay/disorder: A meta-analysis.Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47, 924–943.
  • Lovaas, O. I. (1977). The autistic child: Language development through behavior modification. New York, NY: Irvington.
  • McGinty, A., Breit-Smith, A., Fan, X., Justice, L., & Kaderavek, J. (2011). Does intensity matter? Preschoolers' print knowledge development within a classroom-based intervention.Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26, 255–267.
  • Proctor-Williams, K., & Fey, M. (2007). Recast density and acquisition of novel irregular past tense verbs.Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50, 1029–1047.
  • Riches, N., Tomasello, M., & Conti-Ramsden, G. (2005). Verb learning in children with SLI: Frequency and spacing effects.Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 48, 1397–1411.
  • Rosenthal, J., & Ehri, L. C. (2008). The mnemonic value of orthography for vocabulary learning.Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 175–191.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  • Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes (M. Cole, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • World Health Organization. (2010). World health statistics 2010. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press.

Additional Resources